60% of the car is made of steel. The world’s biggest supplier of steel—state-owned China Baowu—is also the largest steel producer in the Uyghur Region, prolifically engaged in state-sponsored labor transfers. Transferred Uyghur laborers marched for hours to Baowu mines and factories during Covid lockdowns, then were quarantined on-site in sub-standard housing to keep producing steel. Baowu’s Toutunhe smelter is surrounded by cottage steel industries including an array of auto parts makers that source steel from Baowu, engage in labor transfers of their own, and export directly to global markets through Ürümchi’s ‘land port’ for import/export. 


Raw material processor

Casting, Rolling, Finishing

Parent Company


Pre-cursor Manufacturing

Car manufacturer

Parts distributor